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Smart Grid: Countries rush to build new energy infrastructure
Time:2013/9/9 14:04:10
Recently, Deutsche Bank Global Markets Clean Energy chief analyst Gordon told reporters in Beijing that " global clean energy bottleneck , not the development of clean energy itself , but stored and transported in clean energy infrastructure --- smart grid technology upgrading and construction . "
Reporters in the United States , Europe and other interview that , with the smart grid era , the world's smart grid construction has been started . In the smart grid concept gradually become the industry consensus process, the government is building a new energy infrastructure to become active force , many countries have established a goal of smart grid construction , courses of action and investment plans, but given the different regions of regulatory mechanisms , power grid infrastructure facility status and socio-economic development of the different parts of the smart grid development strategy is also different.
Global: Government guidance smart grid construction

Reporters at the national authority ID C EnergyInsights learned , according to U.S. and EU forecasts, 2012 - 2017 period, the global smart grid infrastructure investment proportion of average annual growth rate will reach 17.4% , especially in the hardware, software and services the scale of investment will be greater. Is expected to 2017 , the global smart grid infrastructure investment will reach $ 46.4 billion , while the Asia-Pacific region will become the next five years to invest the fastest growing regions, the proportion is expected to reach its annual growth of 33.7% . And integrated many international authorities predict that by 2020 , global smart grid investment will reach 250 billion U.S. dollars .

According to the definition of the International Energy Conference , smart grid (sm artpow er grids), is the intelligent power grid , also known as " grid 2.0 ", which is based on an integrated , high-speed bidirectional communication network , based on the transmission through advanced sense and measurement technology, advanced equipment and technology , advanced control methods and advanced decision support systems technology, to achieve the grid reliable, safe , economical , efficient, environmentally friendly and safe to use goals , its main features include self-healing , incentives and includes user to defend against attacks , offering to meet the needs of 21st century users power quality , to allow access to a variety of different forms of power generation , start the optimization of the electricity market and asset efficient operation.

NDRC Energy Research Institute experts told reporters that the smart grid is UHV grid as the backbone , the coordinated development of power at all levels a strong grid -based, communication and information platform for the support, with information technology, automation , interactive features includes power system generation, transmission , substation, distribution, electricity and scheduling all aspects , covering all voltage levels, to achieve " power flow, information flow, business flow" of highly integrated fusion , is a strong and reliable , cost-effective environmentally friendly, transparent and open , friendly and interactive modern grid.

According to the American Association of Dennis introduction of new energy , the United States through the Internet and the development of 3G accumulated a wealth of experience in the standard battle has begun in the smart grid standards seize the opportunity. American Institute of Standards and Technology (N IST) proposed to establish three phases smart grid standards . U.S. Commerce Secretary Gary Locke worked in G ridW eek Assembly announced the N IST in the first stage of the latest progress report . The report selected nearly 80 existing standards , guidance and support for the current smart grid development , defined 14 priority research needs and solutions , with specific analysis of information security standards.

It is understood that Japan has begun to seize the technological opportunities electricity market , is trying to expand as a world standard . Japan's Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Fujitsu Group and Mitsubishi Corporation jointly developed electric car grid standards for electric vehicles connected to the grid to lay a good foundation. Japan has a large research and development of lithium-ion battery technology leader , are jointly U.S. to bring its technology to promote international standards.

State Grid Corporation of Science and Technology Smart Grid Director Lin Hongyu revealed in the "Twelve Five" period, the state power grid intelligent building will invest 286 billion yuan . 2012 will build 17 integrated smart grid demonstration projects for power plants and 910 163 Charger AC charging station , smart substation 1329 , the transformation of 132 , building 260 000 Electricity FTTH in 26 provincial-level marketing company with electric automation system, and construct eight provincial smart grid scheduling technology support system, promote the use of 37 million smart meter .

"Smart grid construction will accelerate the development of the next few years , the global smart grid construction situation is a positive from a global perspective, countries in the development of smart grid Government can not absence ." Lin Hongyu representation .

In the United States , Japan and other developed countries, the smart grid has become an important strategic strategy is led and unified in support of the government , set the country and the associated power to develop and promote the . Smart grid strategy has become their future low-carbon economy to seize the commanding heights of the important strategic measures. China and other countries in the development of smart grid , " wrestling " is not only a comprehensive strength and seize the commanding heights of future low-carbon economy of the contest, but also to promote their sustainable economic development, to ensure future energy security needs.

Reporters learned from the EU in recent years, the British Government has been actively carried on smart grid policy support . To implement the 2009 introduction of the " UK Low Carbon Transition Plan " national strategy, early December 2009 , the British government for the first time proposed to vigorously promote the construction of smart grid , earlier release " Smart Grid: Opportunities" report , issued in early 2010 detailed intelligence power grid construction projects. English Ofgem from April 2010 within five years for a total of 500 million pounds spent to increase the scale of experiments. British government is also supporting the development of some of the matching fields , including investment 30 million pounds of the " insert field" framework to support electric vehicle charging infrastructure.

Britain has developed a " smart grid roadmap 2050 " and started to increase investment , support for smart grid technology research and demonstration . After working in strict accordance with the road map will be executed .

In the first phase ( 2010 -2020 ) , Britain is prepared to meet the immediate needs massive investment and create future options. Recent Britain is prepared to expand the existing infrastructure and continue to promote the pilot project construction and strive to improve the deployment of smart meters for future large-scale research and development programs and to provide data to support .

The second phase ( 2020-2050 ) , the purpose is to provide a variety of power after 2050 the fundamental basis for the system options . Specific content is the large number of distributed energy and clean energy development , while increasing the smart home, smart home , embedded storage and distribution of electricity as well as virtual cell applications and enhanced through intelligent design and improve overall grid voltage design automation , intelligent and control.

French government is also on the smart grid policy support. France is the relative lack of national energy resources , oil and gas reserves are limited, coal resources have become exhausted . Encourage the development of renewable energy and smart grid, renewable energy to improve the proportion of total energy consumption has become the French government in the formulation of relevant policy priorities .

In Germany, the rarely used "smart grid ," the term , but the use of E-Energy, translation is "information energy ." To promote the smooth progress of E-Energy , the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology government opened a special website to publish information on the progress of energy , to publicize the benefits of information technology energy construction .

Since December 2008 , the German government invested 140 million euros implement "E-Energy" program in six pilot areas to develop and test the core elements of the smart grid . 2011 , since Japan's nuclear crisis, Germany decided to join the " abandonment " team , to new energy sources and electric vehicles, especially the latter, this year May 16 , according to government sources, the German government intends to invest 1 billion euros subsidies, to support electric vehicles, especially battery technology research and development.

U.S. : Leading Smart Grid Standards

Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy Deputy Minister K ristinaJohnson wireless telecommunications exhibition in the United States delivered a speech on the seminar , said: "There is good news that the U.S. power grid has become a leading 20th century innovation ; But there are also bad news is that it development speed is too slow . "

Johnson emphasized , it is also of concern to the Obama administration . Modern power grid construction for the U.S., is of paramount importance . Smart grid will help consumers save money at the same time , so that they can control their own energy usage. Smart grid devices also enable utilities to obtain real-time information to respond in unexpected situations such as power outages . According to the report estimates that installing two million smart meters will save American consumers billions of dollars a year .

Reporters learned from the American Solar Energy Society , the United States in 2004 issued a " National Transmission Technology Roadmap" , summed up the United States to achieve grid modernization of major issues and challenges , and make recommendations . Roadmap proposed five ways to achieve the national grid through "G rid2030" vision , including: design "G rid2030" architecture ; develop "critical" technologies ; accelerate market acceptance ; strengthen electricity market operation ; build stronger public and private partnership between . The roadmap also details the national grid modernization requires a range of activities , but there are some issues not related to , for example, guarantee the successful completion of these activities specific details , deadlines and the required resources. These supplemental plan also requires electricity industry relevant authorities made further reflection .

As in 2009 the U.S. government to carry out large-scale smart grid development and construction, in July 2009 , the U.S. Department of Energy announced a "smart grid system reports " (Sm art G ridSystem R eport), a comprehensive review of the U.S. and the development of smart grid development problems in the process . Report pointed out that the current U.S. smart grid development biggest problem is that the cost issue , according to statistics, the U.S. smart grid measuring system only need to invest $ 27 billion , by 2030 the entire U.S. smart grid investment required to achieve $ 1.5 trillion . In addition, the interoperability of smart grid standards development process and related policy changes , but also the problems facing the development of smart grids .

Currently, the U.S. smart grid related programs have the following main aspects: strategic power infrastructure protection system , G ridW ise and G ridW orks, modern grid plan , " Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 " in the smart grid planning and economic stimulus plan smart grid development plan.

Recently, the U.S. smart grid construction projects of the negative news continues to grow. For example, the construction cost far more than the original budget , consumers complain smart meters installed within the family but to make electricity costs increase and so on.

Analysts said that if only based on this information , he said that " the United States to carry out smart grid project unfavorable " premature . In fact, if you are able to personally visit your local U.S. smart grid construction projects , from the fiery scene and being the degree of attention , it can be seen that the United States hopes to grasp in the energy sector as it did in the Internet field of " hegemony ." The reason why the United States in the field of rapid development of the Internet and to grasp the initiative , mainly because of strong government support, technical standardization , new members have been involved in accelerating the market formation. In fact, the U.S. smart grid projects , it is also followed similar patterns.

United States Department of Commerce 's National Institute of Standards and Technology (N IST) mainly U.S. government study of smart grid interoperability and network security and other technical standards.

Recently , N IST announced a new generation of grid "smart grid" standardized framework --- clear 75 standard specifications, standards and guidelines. Specifications and standards of which 25 are determined prior to the announcement . This 25 criteria including smart meters and home appliances can be two-way wireless communication technology ZigBee Smart Energy profile (Sm artEnergyProfile).

U.S. Department of Commerce officials told reporters that the main force of the smart grid construction projects on the surface of the power company or local government, but it is actually the leader in the world of large-scale IT companies have branches in specific areas with core technology of high technology companies and non-profit organizations . These are all U.S. companies or organizations have a strong global business segments. For example, the United States engaged in IT consulting services firm Accenture undertook Colorado Boulder smart grid pilot project " Smart Grid City " and Amsterdam, the Netherlands , Japan, Yokohama Smart City Project project management , IBM Corporation in the United States in major cities around the world to provide intelligent city ??consulting and IT services.

High-tech enterprises , most notably the United States SilverSpringN etw orks company . The company is facing the smart grid power company Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) to build and run the solution. The company funded by a number of large-scale construction of high-tech enterprises , and its executive vice president and chief marketing officer , said: " Now it is necessary to build power company smart grid ." California energy giant Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG & E) is the company's customers. PG & E has been deployed in northern California about 7 million smart meters . SilverSpringN etw orks Canada and Australia, the company also provides AMI solutions.

Among the new members are not the only IT companies or high-tech enterprises. U.S. non-profit organizations (N PO) recently demonstrated in the absolute strength of the smart grid . United States in this area , there are many private enterprises no less than the size and volume of business career type N PO.

Europe: the integration of offshore wind power solar power in North Africa

"Recently, to further clarify the requirements of EU Roundtable smart grid technologies will depend on the Atlantic offshore wind power , solar energy in southern Europe and North Africa into the European electricity grid , renewable energy to achieve leaps and bounds ." EU Economic and Social Commission officials Falk told reporters .

Falk said the electricity supply and demand to achieve interaction, coordination , maximize the potential of the existing power system , power system efficiency, reliability and improve power quality and economic benefits for the user smart grids in Europe the basic objective . However, the large number of distributed micro-generation devices and smart grid development in Europe network is experiencing reality.

The European Parliament in 2009 passed the promotion of renewable energy use directive requiring EU 2020 renewable energy supply should reach full energy supply by 20%. While the EU 15 member states (EU 15) (2004 years ago, the EU's 15 member states ) and renewable energy industry 's goal is 2020 renewable energy generating capacity reached 33% of total generating capacity . In a series of energy policy under the guidance of the European determine the direction of development of distributed generation . With suitable research focused on power and energy conversion devices , depth of resources utilization technology , intelligent control and group control optimization techniques and integrated system optimization technology. Among them, grid -related research focused on grid connection of distributed generation systems research, and distributed generation solutions compatible with existing grid infrastructure , integration, and safe operation of the other issues.

In the UK, the smart grid is to explore the direction of renewable energy generation and intelligent distribution . British energy company plans to build a 8.6GW tidal power , will become the world's largest tidal power station in 2020 and plans to use wind power to electricity obtained directly enter a city grid.

However, there is a renewable energy utilization prominent problem is that the current widespread use of solar and wind power severely affected by weather conditions , supply conditions , poor stability, weather conditions will immediately lead to any change in power generation changes . Increase in electricity demand or supply decreases, the grid frequency may change . When large-scale wind farm wind speed decreased , or solar power plants over the drifting cloud, grid frequency may be reduced. If the frequency decrease reached 1H z, emergency power generation unit must be an immediate increase in electricity supply ; declines if the grid frequency reaches 48.8H z, European grid operation management center must cut off the power supply part of the line , which means that some areas will therefore blackouts.

In the UK grid , the typical power flows from north to south, in the low client ( voltage 400V) a certain number of households using gas-fired cogeneration units or solar power, wind power generation device . While the original grid still exists, but the new grid power supply network is more interactive . Interactive residential housing supply can reverse the remaining electricity fed into the grid , which is the UK's electricity law has specified the mode of operation . Therefore , the grid company faces technical improvements and innovations ( such as the need bidirectional protection ) , this interaction to power grid stability control and scheduling caused great difficulties , not only to the grid technology, systems , marketing, management and other aspects of the impact and the traditional power generation, transmission, distribution is a challenge .

Meanwhile, in the side of the grid electricity load requirements for stable operation response , smart appliances technological development in recent years a new topic . In the refrigerator , for example, a refrigerator and grid operation management center can be two-way exchange of information between the grid supply and demand balance is abnormal, the refrigerator control device would immediately respond , according to changes in grid frequency and the amplitude of the temperature inside the refrigerator each region in completely without power or low-power mode. Generally , as long as the corresponding region of the refrigerator temperature is not higher than the specified range , the compressor is shut down . Different response patterns demand for home appliances vary , the current European household electrical appliance enterprises are actively developing such products.

Reporters from the EU Economic and Social Committee understands that smart grid technology issues in Europe , the domestic gas cogeneration plant and network technology development, will promote the popularity of gas-fired cogeneration plant .

Gas-fired cogeneration plant and grid solar PV installations and network are similar, both ends of the power grid by the grid . Gas-fired cogeneration plant has the advantage of more time and power supply control . The exchange of information using the smart grid , users can specify the household cogeneration plant to the grid of time and power supply . To coordinate the use of smart grid operation , enabling real-time two-way exchange of information , and help to improve grid reliability , power quality and operating efficiency.

Currently , the French government to encourage households to install micro-generation devices, such as household gas cogeneration plant . Receiving power of the fuel in the process, usually the first fuel chemical energy is converted to heat . In accordance with the principles of thermodynamics , heat can not all be converted to electrical energy , power generation process will inevitably produce a byproduct --- heat. CHP electricity is generated during the two forms of energy --- electric and thermal energy are effectively utilized. Household gas cogeneration plant typical operating mode is that the gas is converted to power or direct power generation, while recycling heat. Therefore, compared with large-scale power generation equipment, household gas cogeneration plant 's energy efficiency can be increased by 1 times. However, the current UK household gas cogeneration plant installed base is still very small , but did not cause significant impact on the UK grid operation .

And the Japanese household gas engine cogeneration unit is mainly used as a prime mover approach is completely different European products are more external combustion engine using the original motivation to Stirling cycle , a small amount using the Rankine cycle. Using external combustion engine products can be more types of fuel used , less maintenance , many products in 10 years or 10 years lifetime without maintenance . However, this product thermoelectric conversion efficiency is low , typically 15% to 20%, with heat utilization measures, the general thermal efficiency of about 80%. In 2010, Germany's Volkswagen and LichtbLick energy companies to produce domestic gas cogeneration units , the product is the most prominent feature is the use of advanced flue gas condensing heat recovery technology , thermal efficiency up to 94% , the unit's thermoelectric conversion efficiency over 20 % . Volkswagen and LichtbLick energy company plans an annual production capacity of 10,000 units or more .

( This article is from July 2 , " Economic Information Daily" )
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